- Braking a PTW
- Conspicuity devices
- Enforcement of legislation
- Learning, testing and licensing
- Prevention of accidents
- Promotional campaigns
- Road environment
Technical developments have sparked off a complete new field of potential countermeasures, which aim to assist the rider, to control the vehicles, to regulate the access to vehicles, and to monitor behaviour. These so-called ITS systems are mainly developed for implementation in passenger cars and lorries. Bayly at al.  reviewed the literature on the availability and effects of ITS systems on motor cycle safety. They concluded that almost no systems are available for motorcyclists, and that very little evaluative studies exist.
To fill this gap in knowledge, the EU project PISa aims to develop and implement "reliable and fail-safe" integrated safety systems for a range of PTW's, to improve the performance and primary safety (handling and stability) and that can link to secondary safety devices.
Within the project PTW's will be fitted with integrated safety systems with the ambition to demonstrate the potential of such systems to reduce the incidence and severity of up to 50%of PTW accidents. The specification of components of such safety systems will be defined from relevant accident mechanisms and rider assistance functions identified and from identification of existing technologies and safety systems in cars. The systems will take human reaction to information, warning and support systems in to account. More information can be found on http://www.pisa-project.eu/site/en/about.php