- Education and training
- Land use planning
- Measures to reduce crash numbers and injury severity
- Protective devices: helmets
- Road design
- Vehicle design of crash opponents
Visibility: lighting and reflecting devices
Both child pedestrians and cyclists benefit from conspicuity aids and the use of light-coloured and retro-reflective clothing. Designers and manufacturers of children's clothing and accessories are well-positioned to incorporate retro-reflective materials into product lines. Parents, as well as public health and safety officials should encourage them to do so, as one component of an ongoing campaign for protecting children in traffic. Dangle tags, armbands, strips on school bags, and use of bicycle lamps are all recommended .
To ensure the visibility of the cyclist, a bicycle should be equipped with a red reflecting device at the rear, devices ensuring that the bicycle can show white or selective yellow light in front, and red lights on the rear. In some countries, reflectors are also compulsory on the wheels, at the front, and on the pedals (see Vehicle regulations). However, not all bicycles meet those legal norms. A Dutch survey showed that 37% of cyclists did not have their lights on during darkness  . Similar results were found in a Scandinavian survey: 35% of the cyclists did not have correct lighting .